Mindfulness exercises that include meditation, stretching, and acceptance of thoughts and emotions might help veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder find relief from their symptoms.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or MBCT, combines the practice of cognitive therapy with the meditative approach of mindfulness that stresses an increased awareness of all thoughts and emotions.
Previous research has shown stress reduction classes that use mindfulness meditation have been beneficial to people with a history of trauma exposure — including veterans, civilians with war-related trauma, and adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse – but the new study is the first to examine the effect of mindfulness-based psychotherapy for PTSD with veterans in a PTSD clinic.
“A novel therapeutic approach”
“The results of our trial are encouraging for veterans trying to find help for PTSD,” says Anthony P. King, PhD, the study’s lead author and research assistant professor in the U-M Department of Psychiatry. He performed the study in collaboration with psychologists at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System.
Veterans in the mindfulness treatment groups participated in in-class exercises such as mindful eating, in which they focused on sensations associated with eating very slowly; “body scanning,” an exercise where patients focused on physical sensations in individual parts of the body, paying special attention to pain and tension; mindful movement and stretching; and “mindfulness meditation,” focusing on the breath and emotions.
The participants also were instructed to practice mindfulness at home through audio-recorded exercises and during the day while doing activities such as walking, eating, and showering.
After eight weeks of treatment, 73 percent of patients in the mindfulness group displayed meaningful improvement compared to 33 percent in the treatment-as-usual groups.
An intervention in its own right?
King says the most noticeable area of improvement for patients in the mindfulness group was a reduction in avoidance symptoms. One of the main tenets of mindfulness therapy is a sustained focus on thoughts and memories, even ones that might be unpleasant.
“Part of the psychological process of PTSD often includes avoidance and suppression of painful emotions and memories, which allows symptoms of the disorder to continue,” King says. “Through the mindfulness intervention, however, we found that many of our patients were able to stop this pattern of avoidance and see an improvement in their symptoms.”
Mindfulness techniques also emphasize focus and attention to positive experiences and nonjudgmental acceptance to one’s thoughts and emotions. Because of this, the researchers found that the patients in the mindfulness group experienced a decrease in feelings of self-blame and a trend toward decreased perception of the world as a dangerous place.
Exploring the possibilities
King says the results of this pilot study are encouraging, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to fully explore the breadth of mindfulness intervention benefits. He added that the U-M-VA group is currently conducting a larger study including military veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.
“Either way, mindfulness-based therapies provide a strategy that encourages active engagement for participants, are easy to learn, and appear to have significant benefits for veterans with PTSD.”
Citation: “A Pilot Study of Group Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD),” Depression and Anxiety (2013)
Additional authors: Thane M. Erickson, Nicholas D. Giardino, Todd Favorite, Sheila A.M. Rauch, Elizabeth Robinson, Madhur Kulkarni, Israel Liberzon
Funding: Department of Defense TATRC, grant W81XWH0820208 and Mind and Life Institute Varela Award
Top image: Austin Ban.
This story was reprinted courtesy of the University of Michigan Health System.