A peony by any other name…

His “salvation and his companions”

In 1922, Dr. W. E. Upjohn gave a gift of peonies to the University of Michigan that would become what is now the University of Michigan Nichols Arboretum Peony Garden.

W.E. Upjohn

Dr. W.E. Upjohn

Upjohn’s significant gift has come full circle, as his family recently came together on the 100th anniversary of his gift with a donation of $2 million to name the gardens after its original donor. On May 19, the U-M Board of Regents approved naming the garden the W.E. Upjohn Peony Garden, in recognition of collective gifts from members of the Upjohn family.

“The peonies were my father’s salvation and his companions,” his late daughter Genevieve Upjohn once said. “He loved growing them; he loved talking about them. He loved picking them. He even wrote his own definitions of the different varieties and had them printed in a booklet. Peonies were picked and put into bouquets for the guests to buy. Many were given away to the public schools and colleges for graduation each year.”

An annual pilgrimage

The Peony Garden has delighted the local community for nearly a century, and visiting it has become an annual spring pilgrimage for visitors from Michigan and beyond. Each year, the garden presents a stunning display, with 350 historic herbaceous varieties from the 19th and 20th centuries opening in near unison. At peak bloom, visitors are treated to more than 10,000 blossoms in shades of pink, red, and white.

This meaningful space assumed form in 1922 with a donation of peonies from Upjohn, a U-M Medical School alumnus (1875) and founder of the Upjohn Pharmaceutical Company in Kalamazoo, Mich. It was this gift of a large, critically evaluated collection of herbaceous peonies that established the Nichols Arboretum Peony Garden.

It is believed that Upjohn contributed peonies from his own extensive collection, as well as exceptional selections from nationally recognized experts. This initial collection has grown over the last hundred years, and the Peony Garden is now considered the largest collection of antique and heirloom herbaceous peonies in North America, with specimens that represent many of the important American, Canadian, and European herbaceous peonies of the era — over half of which are no longer commercially available.

In 1927, after Upjohn’s initial donation was established, the Nichols Arboretum Peony Garden opened to the public. The following year, the U-M Board of Regents acknowledged the resolution by the Directors of the American Peony Society that recognized the Nichols Arboretum Peony Garden. This acknowledgment underscored the significance of the gift and the intent to establish a major herbaceous and tree peony collection at U-M.

100 years of peonies sounds like…

“Hybrid Cultivars,” created by Alexis Lamb, a U-M Doctorate of Musical Arts in Composition candidate, consists of 27 single-pipe chimes installed throughout the garden. Each chime plays a similar pitch, so as you walk among the flower beds you are immersed in a drone-like sound of the collective chimes as they interact with different natural elements and humans. This is Lamb’s way of encouraging people to “open their ears to what is already around them” Read more.

A great passion

A pretty pink peony

“Peonies were one of my grandfather’s great passions,” said Martha Gilmore Parfet. (Image: D. Holdship.)

In the last several years, interest in the garden has become a family affair. Upjohn’s granddaughter, Martha Gilmore Parfet, reconnected with the garden a decade ago.

“We’re proud to be part of the effort to preserve the collection for the future,” she said in 2012. “Peonies were one of my grandfather’s great passions, and he would be so pleased to see how plants from his original collection are still growing, and will continue to thrive, in Nichols Arboretum.”

In 2016, Parfet made a gift of $500,000, the largest endowment gift in the history of the Gardens and Arboretum at the time, to help restore and protect the largest collection of heirloom peonies in North America. The gift was made in honor of her grandfather and established the W.E. Upjohn Peony Garden Endowment Fund to care for the historically and internationally significant garden.

It was Parfet’s desire to make additional gifts in her lifetime to name the Peony Garden the “W.E. Upjohn Peony Garden.” She died in 2017 at age 91, before she could reach this goal.

Parfet’s children have since made additional contributions through the Martha & Ted Parfet Donor Advised Fund of the Kalamazoo Community Foundation to reach the naming goal their mother had set. Additional members of the Upjohn family have made personally significant gifts to the fund as well.

Deep roots

Beautiful row of fuschia peonies

“The peonies were my father’s salvation and his companions,” his late daughter Genevieve Upjohn once said. (Image: D. Holdship.)

Upjohn was founder and president of the Upjohn Company for nearly 40 years. (Upjohn merged with Pharmacia Corp. in 1995 and is now part of Pfizer Inc.). In 1886, he invented an easily crushable pill known as a “friable pill,” which was easily crushed to a powder, to compete with the bitter and insoluble pills at the time.

He was one of 12 children and one of four siblings who became physicians. Upjohn received his medical degree from U-M in 1875 and then practiced medicine in Hastings, Mich., for 10 years. In addition to his medical practice, he was also a nationally noted philanthropist, known as “Kalamazoo’s First Citizen,” and his death in 1932 left the community in mourning.

A passionate collector and evaluator of herbaceous peonies, he was active in the American Peony Society, serving as treasurer for a term beginning in 1923. His personal estate near Kalamazoo held more than 600 cultivars across at least 14 acres of peony beds. Upjohn enjoyed opening his private collection to the public — free of charge — during the bloom season.

He also kept meticulous track of his peonies and privately published “Brook Lodge Gardens – Peonies.” This booklet, published after 1922, contains his articulate opinions of the virtues and diverse intriguing facts peony by peony.



  1. James Marquardt - 1972

    The Upjohn and Gilmore families set a standard for giving generously, and the University of Michigan, as well as the City of Kalamazoo, have benefitted greatly.


  2. Rae Cruthers Weaver - 1957

    How I miss walking thru the gardens at this time of year! NOTHING matches them here in NC where I now live. Michigan is a wonderful state with so much to offer…
    take advantage of it. I did bring some peonies down here which I brought from our farm, dated 1824, in NY, planted at our house on Cambridge Rd., and moved again to Raleigh. They were quite lovely this spring and brought back so many memories!


  3. Larry Eils - 1969 School of Public Health

    I wish I knew this peony garden was there while I was attending school. I have 100 peonies from my father-in-law. They are wonderful when they bloom.



    What a wonderful article. My maiden name is Swanson when I was at college. Peonies are one of my favorite
    flowers. We had a lot of them in our garden where I grew up in Kalamazoo, Michigan. So I am well aware of the
    Upjohns and Gilmores, but I do not remember the Peonies in the Arboreum. I moved to Southern California after
    college and really love all the flowers year around here. But I have never been able to grow Peonies here or Tulips
    or Daffodils which I also loved in Michigan. I guess they need the cold winters. But last week I was excited to be
    able to buy a bouquet of cut Peonies at the grocery store.


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