Roll the film back, please
Everyone has an origin story, and my life as a film professor at U-M began in winter 1970.
I had just finished my PhD and was in my first year as a faculty member in the Department of Speech. My focus had been on film criticism, and I was hired to replace Professor Robert Davis who left in 1969 to take a position at Southern Illinois University.
It was an exciting and challenging time in cinema and academia. The counter-culture fervor of the 1960s had spurred student interest in the motion picture. Film societies sprang up on college campuses everywhere, exposing budding cineastes to artistic and socially significant American and foreign films. The Cinema Guild, Michigan’s first such society, had been showing films since the 1950s, initially in Lorch Hall’s old Architecture Auditorium. When I came to Michigan as a doctoral student, the Guild was screening retrospectives on directors D.W. Griffith, Frank Capra, Sam Fuller, and more. Filmgoers received printed brochures with a full overview of the director’s significance to film art. I still have my D.W. Griffith brochure.
As I reflect on these past times, I remember fondly that small group of men and women who were leading players in the origin story of film studies at Michigan.
Senior would be Marvin Felheim (1914-79), who joined the English faculty in 1948. As an academic, Felheim pursued varied scholarly interests: Shakespearean and Greek drama, popular literature, and culture. He directed the Program in American Culture from 1971-78 where he launched a revered four-part class to analyze the “American Genre.” He focused on westerns, comedies, musicals, and gangster classics. Cultural historian and film critic Neal Gabler was a graduate teaching assistant in Felheim’s class.
George Manupelli (1931-2014) came to what is now the Penny Stamps School of Art and Design in 1962. An award-winning avant-garde/experimental film director, Manupelli founded the Ann Arbor 16mm Film Festival in 1963. He wanted to provide an annual outlet for the fringe works of experimental and pioneering filmmakers. Andy Warhol, Kenneth Anger, Yoko Ono, Gus Van Sant, and Barbara Hammer submitted their early work to the festival.
In the mid-’60ss Manupelli participated in the ONCE Group, an avant-garde performance collective of dancers, musicians, filmmakers, and visual artists. When the ONCE Group disbanded, Manupelli turned to making his “Dr. Chicago” narrative trilogy: Dr. Chicago (1968), Ride Dr. Chicago Ride (1970), and Cry Dr. Chicago (1971). The trilogy recounts the escapades of a man posing as a medical doctor, abetted by a cohort of companions, with elements echoing the Once Group.
Peter Bauland (1932-2018) taught courses in the Department of English for 55 years. A scholar of German drama, Bauland joined the University faculty in 1964 teaching courses in Film as Literature, Screenwriting, and Playwriting. The Michigan Theater granted him permission to use its screening room as his class setting in his final years of teaching.
Robert Sklar (1936-2011) came to Michigan’s History Department in 1965 after receiving a PhD in the history of American civilization at Harvard. On arrival, Sklar accepted the role of faculty adviser to the Cinema Guild’s membership board, which nominated and voted on screening selections. That experience inspired Sklar to research and write a book about the history and significance of American movies.
I came to know him when he would come to my office to borrow 16mm films that I’d rented for my classes. His book Movie-Made America: A History of American Movies (1975) has never been out of print. Because of his meticulous research and cultural insights, many of us credit Sklar with helping to advance cinema studies as a serious academic discipline. New York University’s Tisch School of Cinema Studies hired Sklar in 1977. He taught there for 33 years until his death in 2011 following a bicycle accident in Barcelona.
Diane Kirkpatrick (1933-) and Ira Konigsberg (1935-) came to Michigan in 1968, to the History of Art and English departments, respectively. Kirkpatrick’s academic credentials and course content included contemporary art, photography, cinema, and technological media. She served as chair of the History of Art Department from 1988-94. Konigsberg taught a variety of film classes, notably on literature and film. He also played a key administrative role as chairman of the newly created Department of Film and Video (1988-95). His 1987 book The Complete Film Dictionary is a vital work for motion picture scholars and students.
Hu Cohen (1930-) and I earned our PhDs at Michigan in 1970 and happily joined the faculty. Cohen was hired to teach in the College of Engineering’s Humanities Department and later in the Residential College. He segued to the Department of Screen Arts and Cultures in 1985. His popular film courses have included Writing Film Criticism and Art of the Film. This is Cohen’s 50th year teaching at Michigan.
Other early pathfinders were William “Buzz” Alexander, Stuart McDougal, Alfredo Montalvo, and Herb Eagle.
Alexander, a Harvard PhD, accepted an assistant professorship of English in 1971. A committed activist, his first class with film components involved a study of the Holocaust, Vietnam, Hiroshima, and Latin America as viewed through art. In 1990, Alexander founded and taught in the Prison Creative Arts Project (PCAP), an innovative program in which he and other professors led workshops for inmates in art, theater, literature, and creative writing.
McDougal joined the Comparative Literature Program in 1973 teaching cross-media courses in fiction and film. He authored the standard textbook on the subject, Made into Movies: From Literature to Film (1985). McDougal served as chair of the comparative literature program from 1982-97, an impressive tenure for a U-M chairmanship.
Montalvo was an award-winning filmmaker, industrial animator, and documentarist. He joined the now-Stamps School of Art and Design faculty in 1973 where he taught Film Production, Foundation and Industrial Design, and Drawing for 16 years.
Eagle, MA ’69/PhD ’73, earned his degrees in Slavic Studies and was invited to be a Junior Fellow in the Michigan Society of Fellows (1970-73). After teaching at Purdue University, he returned to Michigan in 1979 and has been an academic mainstay in teaching and research focused on European cinema, film theory, Russian and East European film, and semiotics. His research in these areas has been widely published.
Run and gun
In the early days, we all taught film in different departments and schools, which left us with rudimentary facilities and materials. I taught My Film Theory seminar in a standard classroom with no projection capabilities. For the Introduction to Film course, students met in Frieze’s Arena Theater. I lugged a 16mm Bell and Howell projector to each class. Thankfully, the Department supplied me with an undergrad projectionist, the wonderfully competent Shelley Kassman (Klein). My film production lab took place in a dressing room for athletes back when Frieze had been Ann Arbor High School. A defunct shower stall served as a dark room for loading and unloading 100-foot 16mm film reels.
A pivotal moment for film instruction at U-M occurred in 1972 with the completion of the Modern Languages Building (MLB) on the corner of Washington and Thayer streets. Each of the two auditoria on MLB’s first floor could seat several hundred students. Both were equipped with film and slide projection capability. Two smaller seminar-styled classrooms were sandwiched between the two large auditoria.
With more and improved teaching spaces, enrollment grew significantly in required and popular film classes. As the ‘70s progressed, the University outfitted other venues with auditorium seating for media use, notably in the south-end corridor of Angell Hall and in the Kraus Natural Science Building.
The action continued to pick up once the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts began providing projection service for film screenings and classes. Among those early indispensable assistants were Peter Wilde and the Moray siblings, Liz, Dan, and Anne. Dan is now a union projectionist at the Michigan Theater and Anne is a senior audiovisual technician at LSA’s Technology Services.In the ’70s, we had to get creative when sourcing films for our syllabi. Many of us rented 16mm prints of classics and historically important works from Films Inc., a reliable Chicago company. Blackhawk Films of Davenport, Iowa, sold reasonably priced one- and two-reel silent shorts on 8mm and Super-8 film (Keystone Kops and comedies by Charlie Chaplin Buster Keaton). Blackhawk also offered anthologies on actors and directors; they also had a healthy collection of silent pictures (Birth of a Nation, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, etc.).
Film options further expanded when the University of Iowa formed the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC). It was a consortium of Big Ten universities that agreed to make available a large collection of 16mm films for inter-university loan.
U-M’s Audio-Visual Education Center (AVEC) at Fourth and William streets was another gem. The Center housed numerous documentaries and short subject narrative films: Nanook of the North, Triumph of the Will and the minutes’-long works of emerging French “new wave” directors Jean-Luc Godard and Francois Truffaut. Karen Sayer skillfully curated the center’s collection of newly released films for classroom use in consultation with the film faculty.
Here we are in 2020. The Department of Film, Television, and Media (FTVM) is the home of the Donald Hall Collection on the sixth floor of North Quad. Faculty members and students have access to more than 20,000 DVDs and 3,000 screenplays.
The FTVM department now consists of more than three dozen faculty members, many with inter-departmental appointments. Other departments and schools have faculty who teach media-related courses. Content options for students are generous: national cinemas, philosophy of film, documentary, digital media, and genre analysis. Also included are creative writing classes for students focusing on screenplays, television dramas, and sketch comedies.
I retired long before North Quad opened in 2010, so I never was able to fully take advantage of its state-of-the-art film and video production facilities. That said, I have fond memories of that Frieze Building dressing-room-turned-film-lab.
So many wonderful students. I have no regrets.
David Haldeman - ‘73
I was an early student of “Dr. Beaver” and took several of his classes. What a joy it was to watch and even make films for school credit! Frank was certainly my most important and most memorable professor during my undergrad years. After graduation I was so fortunate to have an amazing career in the Detroit advertising community as a Television Commercial Producer. Many of my high-end projects were filmed in Los Angeles. Many in the Hollywood movie industry; Directors, Cinematographers and Crew would also work on short term commercial jobs. At times we even employed celebrities as on-camera or voice-over talent. One of those movie stars was Jack Palance as our spokesman for a series of Automotive ads for Lincoln Mercury. We even filmed one spot at his ranch home in Tehachapi, California. During that shoot our Director had set up a shot where the angle would have been in the opposite direction of the previous scene therefore breaking the “line of action” – a basic tenet of film making that I had learned from film class. When I pointed this out to the Director, Mr. Palance said to me, “you really know what you’re doing”. Yes indeed and due to the excellent instruction I received from my favorite college instructor – Dr. Frank Beaver. Thanks Frank!
Doug Vernier - 1966 and 1968
Thanks very much for your excellent history of the development of film studies at the U of M. There certainly have been many changes and improvements. As a student in the radio and TV curriculum, I took one of the first offerings in Film, and as I recall, we were classmates in Professor Davis’ class. Our classrooms were in the, now gone, Frieze building. In those early days, Dr. Davis had only two 16 mm Bell & Howell cameras that had to be shared among the students. I recall taking my date to the fledgling Ann Arbor Film Festival and seeing some excellent avant-garde films. I still consider my film courses as being among the most interesting of all my U of M experience. Thank you for filling me in on the fine people who were instrumental in the development of making Film at U of M what it is today.
Keely Baribeau - ‘97
Frank Beaver is such a kind, enthusiastic and wonderful, not only educator, but person. From my first freshman class, to his summer abroad program in London, the perspectives and experiences he presented to his students were life-impacting. I went on to have a fantastic 10-year career in Los Angeles with a variety of television shows and networks. Some of my fondest memories of U of M are his classes.
Marshall Katzman - 1970-71
What a great article! I had the honor of winning a box of stale popcorn for guessing the most incorrect answers for the annual “Predict Who Will Win This Years Academy Awards” contest!
Tim Artist - '79 & '82
A pleasing look back. The old film production room and the attached darkroom in the Frieze are particularly memorable for me. I spent a lot of time there, all of it simply the best. Thanks Frank!
William Hulsker - '64
Once I discovered the Cinema Guild I went regularly. Discovered Bergman and was amazed at Films like Virgin Spring and the Seventh Seal. I also attended probably all of the ONCE Festival concerts. So memorable. I started out at UM in Musicology but ended up with AMLS in Library Science and became a music librarian at WSU for 34 years. Loved those years in AA. Also attended all of the APA incredible productions.
Chris Campbell - 1972 (MA); 1975 (law)
My years in Ann Arbor were difficult but I always found time to attend Film Festival screenings and Cinema Guild showings. My taste had been whetted by a French professor at my undergraduate school who had encouraged attendance at foreign language films, a new experience for me and a rewarding one. Foreign films, experimental films, and historic ones all provided new ways of seeing and understanding. Prof. Beaver’s article informs me of the names responsible for those positive experiences. They were a valuable part of my education.
Lisa Fetman - 2007
In 2005 I took a movie musical class with Dr. Bauland, which was one of my favorite courses at U-M. I fondly recall watching classic musical films at the Michigan Theater once a week, feeling transported back to the 1930s, ’40s, ’50s, ’60s, and ’70s weekly (the organist playing prior to each screening was a special, and appropriate touch!) These are some of my favorite academic memories, and demonstrate the value of the humanities in education. I am saddened to hear of his recent passing! As a professor of education, I honor him by incorporating an immersive teaching style and advocating for humanities education.
Jeffrey Chown - 1982 (PhD)
That brings back a lot of memories. Thanks so much, Frank! I hope the energy so meticulously described in his history is still as strong as ever.
Roger Rapoport - 1968
Marvin Felheim was a wonderful professor, beloved by all the students who had a chance to know him. Funny and knowing, he had an easy going manner that we all enjoyed.
Mark Marabate - 2001
From 1997 – 2001 Professor Frank Beaver was an important mentor, and sometimes “student film actor”, for me. Whether I was applying for an internship, had a question for an exam, or simply wanted to talk film he was always available, open and honest, and a wealth of information. I am not sure I would have had the courage to pursue film as a full time profession without his enthusiasm for my student work. After screening one of my student films he once sent me an e-mail which stated “The bottom-line thought is: if Mark can do that kind of marvelous work now, what will he be able to do in a few years!”. Not many Professors would take the time to attend a student’s screening let alone follow-up with constructive criticism and those kind words. I am very grateful that the University of Michigan had such a wonderful film program when I attended and I am very thankful that Professor Frank Beaver was there to provide support and guidance. I can not imagine the next historian, who writes about the history of U of M’s cinema/video program, not including Dr. Beaver as a major contributor.
susan wineberg - 1967, 71, 75.
This brought back lots of wonderful memories since I knew George Manupelli and the film festival crowd in a tangential way. The sad thing to me is that only one woman appears in your list of important people. Also, no minorities. It emphasizes how our cultural institutions are still some of the most sexist and racist elements of our culture. I love watching movies but I love watching movies with strong female characters the most! Someday we may have parity and have cultural institutions that look more like the general public.
Martin Kloner - 1985
I can’t thank Professor Frank Beaver enough for the guidance and knowledge I received from him while attending the University of Michigan from 1981-1985, I was enrolled in the Art School and my major was Graphic Design. It wasn’t long before I realized that my heart was really in it but the arts were still a major draw for me. I started taking photography and acting classes and then I took Professor Beaver’s Film History class and that’s where it all began. I was lucky enough to get into his Graduate Film Workshop class and was able to make my own films. Professor Beaver encouraged me to apply to Grad film schools which I would never had done without his encouragement. I applied and was accepted at NYU Tisch School of the Arts Graduate Film school where I spent the next three years building on the film knowledge I began at Michigan. I’ve now been working in the film business as a Visual Effects Editor for 30 years. Thank you Professor Beaver for all of the support and guidance you gave me when I really needed it. I have no idea where I’d be today without you.
Bill Cutting - 1975
I was fortunate enough, as an incoming freshman, to be introduced to Hazen Schumacher, who pointed me in the direction of the U of M Television Center. I started working there as a PA, later as a camera person, early in my freshman year and continued all the way through graduation. About the time I started there, I took Dr. Beaver’s Intro to Film class, and continued on that track, fortunate enough to enjoy his mentorship, for the next four years. Our senior class film project (427?) was an ambitious blockbuster: a 1940s film noire murder mystery, complete with original screenplay, original score, period costumes, spooky Hill St. gothic house, vintage autos… even a snorkel truck borrowed from the City of Ann Arbor, to film the arrival of the 1952 Cadillac ambulance with a dramatic, swooping tilt down to the opening of the ambulance’s back door. Shooting took a full week and wrapped just as we were heading off to spring break. But as we were viewing the rushes, we were puzzled by the black triangle that blocked 75% of every frame of every single shot in the film. Turns out, the camera contained an attached razor inside the body, which the cinematographer used to snip the film leader into a triangle so it would auto-load more easily. Extremely early on, one of those tag-end triangles fell into the loading mechanism and was carried directly into the gate, where it lodged itself through the next 30 or 40 rolls of film. The camera viewfinder was not of the through-the-lens variety, so there was no way to detect the problem when it could still have been fixed. We were devastated and thoroughly disheartened. We met with Dr. Beaver immediately, to discuss our options. He was tremendously sympathetic, gracious, and accommodating. So, after weighing our options, we elected to completely re-shoot the film, minus many of the period details of which we were so proud. Returning from break, we reassembled cast, crew, set, (but just the 1952 Cadillac), and re-shot every damn scene of the movie. Our backs were against the wall as we raced to meet the deadline for the final public screening. Everything went surprisingly well, except the sound synchronization was about two seconds off. But we made it, thanks to Dr. Beaver’s patience, encouragement, and guidance. It might have been the most important lesson each of us learned in our four years at U of M. EPILOGUE: Several days after the premiere, I walked into Dr. Beaver’s office, whereupon he asked me if I was interested in taking a film job. It seems he had just received a call from Don Canham, then UofM AD, who wanted to know if there was a newly graduated film student who was interested in a full time position making instructional sports films for his private company, Olympia Sports. That was the very first step in what turned out to be a 45-year career in TV and film production, media, advertising, and brand management, most of it with two companies I founded, grew and sold. I shudder to think how differently things might have turned out if I had never met Dr. Frank Beaver. Thanks, Frank.